IWRA World Water Congress 2008 Montpellier France
8. Capacity Building
David C. Rogers
MALATERRE (corresponding author)
Address: Cemagref, 361, rue JF Breton – BP 5095 – 34196
MONTPELLIER Cedex 5 – France
Phone : + 33 (0) 4 67 04 63 56 Fax : + 33 (0) 4 67 16 64 40
David C. ROGERS
Address: Rogers Engineering Hydraulics,
2650 Tabor St, Lakewood CO 80215, USA
canal, control, game, training, model, irrigation, teaching, hands-on,
of the hydraulic regulation of irrigation canals is a proven method to increase the global hydraulic efficiency of
irrigation projects. Modernization can improve the quality of service to water users and can protect the infrastructure
during emergencies such as heavy rainstorms. Different surveys carried out in the USA, France, and Australia have
confirmed the value of irrigation project modernization and have promoted such modernization projects.
though some irrigation canals have been operating for hundreds or thousands of years, canal control methods have
changed dramatically during the last few decades. The introduction of sensors, motorized gates, SCADA systems,
and computers, combined with advances in hydraulics and control engineering, has allowed new automatic control
techniques such as distant downstream controllers or centralized controllers. Even more classical local upstream
controllers can be improved to become more efficient and flexible using digital technologies.
Most new large
irrigation canals are now designed and built using modern technologies allowing advanced control procedures. But
more than 90% of the irrigation canals in the world are still using traditional technologies and operation principles.
One of the reasons for this discrepancy is the lack of engineers skilled in this new domain, and the reluctance of canal
managers to change to an unfamiliar system with new technologies and new operation and maintenance
Some research and development institutes have built knowledge and experience in this specific
domain of the regulation of irrigation canals, or more widely in the regulation of open channel hydraulic systems. This
includes knowledge and experience in hydraulics, control engineering and adapted technologies. Cemagref in France
and the Bureau of Reclamation in the USA are two of these institutes. Besides their research and consultant
activities, these organizations build teaching packages that target students in civil, hydraulic or control engineering,
canal managers and operators, and other professionals. These packages include computer games and hands-on
activities on model canals. These methods have been used routinely for several years and will be described in this
Cemagref has designed an interactive computer game allowing students to manipulate gates in order to
stabilize water levels in an irrigation canal following what is called a distant downstream regulation framework. It is
included in a larger teaching package spread over one to five days. This game uses the SIC hydrodynamic software
developed by Cemagref in Montpellier. It has been used for teaching sessions for at least three engineering schools
with French and foreign students and for canal managers of the Office du Niger in Mali. Previously, Cemagref
organized similar capacity-building sessions in hydraulic modelling and canal regulation in Sri Lanka, Mexico,
Mauritius Island, and Morocco.
The Bureau of Reclamation has constructed a 300-foot-long model canal its
hydraulics laboratory in Denver, Colorado. This canal is used during a 5-day course on canal operation and control.
The targeted audience is canal operators, water masters, engineers and other technical staff. Classes are held
annually for participants from the USA, and an international class is organized about every 3 years. The model canal
was designed specifically to provide training through “hands-on” workshops where students experience different
canal operating techniques and control methods.
Both experiences have the objective to train people in the
domain of hydraulics and control for irrigation canals, hoping this will facilitate the introduction of new methods and
technologies to operating projects.