The water and energy security issue is a big challenge and problem for sustainable development in China. In this study, we take the largest coal energy producing region in China as the research area, to analyze the impacts of future climatic changes and human activity on water resources in Shanxi's energy base (main energy producing region) has been investigated base on the Coupled Land surface and Hydrology Model System (CLHMS) using three different IPCC AR5 emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Comparing with the current national policy, the supporting capacity of water resources in mid-21st Century on the energy bases development was discussed. It's showed that Shanxi's energy bases water demand will continue to grow, the competitiveness of the development and utilization of water resources in the area will be further intensified. This research also proved the basis for the development scale of energy bases in the future.