The physico-chemical parameters of industrial effluent generated from production of soap and hand-dug well water around the effluent open drainage had been investigated; with a view to determining the impact of the effluent on the well water in the study area. Soap effluent collected weekly for four weeks and seven well water (collected twice each in wet and dry seasons) samples were analysed for their physico-chemical parameters including water temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), apparent colour, turbidity and conductivity using standard methods. Other parameters analysed were : alkalinity, acidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and Cl- using standard methods. Major anions such as SO42-, NO3- and PO43- were determined using UV-Visible spectrometric method. Sodium, K, Ca Mg, and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The physico-chemical parameters of effluents from soap industry obtained ranged: BOD (125.28±0.39 – 228.00±3.11 mg/L), COD (243.03±0.04 – 277.66±0.09 mg/L), turbidity (300.90±1.27 – 320.50±0.71 NTU), apparent colour (2922.80±0.00 – 3146.71±0.14 Pt.-Co.), TSS (463.00±4.24 – 4169.00±12.73 mg/L), PO43- (4.73±0.01 – 6.11±0.01 mg/L) and Cr (0.08±0.01 – 0.25±0.01 mg/L). These values were above Nigerian standards - National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA). The pH of soap effluent ranged from 6.16±0.03 to 10.22±0.16. Meanwhile, the physico-chemical parameters of well water samples showed that turbidity (10.17 – 153.91 NTU), apparent colour (11.99 – 1803.30 Pt.-Co.), pH (8.60 – 10.30), BOD (50.54 – 58.18 mg/L), PO43- (5.21 – 7.08 mg/L), Cl- (264.15 – 276.25 mg/L), TSS (178.00 – 375.50 mg/L), TDS (660.50 – 782.50 mg/L) and conductivity (1102.00 – 1307.00 µS/cm) of some wells located close to the effluent drainage were above World Health Organisation (W.H.O.) drinking water quality standard. The range of values obtained in the entire wells in both seasons for Cd, Cr and Pb were above W.H.O. standard while Fe, Mn , Cu and Zn were below W.H.O. standard.
The study concluded that the level of pollution of soap effluents had exceeded the permissible levels and the well waters in the study area were negatively impacted.