1. Introduction This study clarifies causal relationship of between behavioral patterns and recognition farmers in a semi-arid region, Southern Turkey, have. Adana, which is located in the southwestern Turkey along the Mediterranean Sea, faces the future concerns about water shortage. Since this city is in a semi-arid region and it is projected that the available amount of water will decrease by around 20 percent in the future, most of farmers in Adana heighten their sense of crisis about drought. In this context, we hypothesized they should have high consciousness about water consumption, and thus their behavioral pattern of water usage should be environmentally sound. But the fact was different. Adana has been developing economically through the national agricultural program, that is, Lower Seyhan Irrigation Project (LSIP). During the 1950's, the Seyhan Dam was constructed on the Seyhan River, which runs through the City of Adana and the Lower Seyhan Plain (LSP). Because this Plain is one of the most fertile areas, but semi-arid, Turkish government chose this region for the irrigated agriculture (W. Scheumann, 1997: 79-81). LSIP comprises 175,000 ha and the capacity of Seyhan Dam Reservoir is 1.2 billion m3 (C. Umetsu, et al, 2005). Mainly because of financial crisis in 1990's, the Turkish government decentralized the irrigation management. In detail, this means farmers themselves have been managing irrigation system, such as operation and management (O&M), collecting water fee and so on, since the Turkish government transferred its authority to Water Users Association (WUAs). However, some WUAs have difficulties in collecting water fee and maintaining irrigation facilities. This also makes farmers unsatisfied with the management by WUAs and causes several environmental problems, such as water loss, salinization, and so on. As a result, in March, 2011, central government decided to adopt the New Water Law, which doubles water fee and forces WUAs to use 40% of collected fee for O&M and 20% for personnel. It can be said that the irrigation governance in this district is likely to move back to top-down approach by the national government. These changes occurred to us that we should question the behavior of individual farmers. In fact, through our preliminary interview with individual farmers, some showed they indeed understand they should save water, chemical fertilizer and pesticide for conserving environment, but they don't want to do them because they are concerned about the decrease in their crop yield. Moreover, they complained about the rise of water fee and insisted in the needs of technological development to decrease water consumption, instead of their own effort for saving water. Taking these facts into consideration, this study aims at clarifying the gap between the behavioral pattern and the consciousness of individual farmers about water use by asking them willingness to pay (WTP). First, this paper summarizes the transition of the development of irrigated agriculture in LSP and our methodology of WTP. Second, this article demonstrates the result of our questionnaire survey about the behavioral pattern and WTP of individual farmers in relation to water use. Finally, we conclude this paper by proposing comprehensive policy which integrates technological development, capacity building and water pricing. 2. Methods and Materials In this study, we conducted questionnaire survey about behavioral pattern and WTP of individual farmers. We selected three of 18 WUAs in LSP, Toroslar (not good example), Akarsu (good example) and Gazi (best example), based on local characteristics and collection ratio of water fee (Table 1). We collected 90 samples in total, that is, 30 samples in each WUA.