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Sustainable Enterprise Development, By Indigenous Women Groups -- Building Up From Effective Water Management.

World Water Congress 2015 Edinburgh Scotland
10. Management of water resources
Author(s): HARI GUPTA (Ranchi

Keyword(s): Sub-theme 10: Management of water resources,


Introduction: The tribal/indigenous population of the globe is most vulnerable community, while facing the challenges of climate change. Further hem their women are still more vulnerable due to inherent gender related weakness. In this context livelihood system of tribal women also faces question mark on sustainability issue. Helping the indigenous women groups in achieving sustainable livelihood path -- is a big challenge. The effort of evolving a "model for enterprise based livelihood system -- with effective water management support, attempts to make tribal livelihood resilient to climate change strategy for tribal livelihood. The learning guide us for future. Methods and material: The villages with high tribal women groups concentrations were chosen; where design interventions of "model" were carried out. As the livelihood of indigenous community revolves around; farming/livestock rearing and the same is dependent upon seasonal rains. Jharkhand being rainfed state; most of its indigenous people village - suffer from lack of irrigation facility. Hence, "model" works on premise that augmenting irrigation can alone bring substantial surplus in agriculture production of tribal women. Thus, the basic building block of "model" has been developing small and varied irrigation structures which can tap/store water; and when rains are over and the water is transported to fields through pumps/pipes. This result in better production of post rain crops -- resulting in surplus agri-produce. Result and discussion Flow chart of the model: The additional irrigation facility created, has resulted in revolutionary impact in overall productivity of villages and better income opportunity. Further, as the whole "Value Chain" has been touched in systematic manner; thus making the "enterprise model" quite sustainable. The resultant surplus has been attempted to be processed in (small work sheds constructed in each village -- named enterprise centre), using small -- scale machineries -- operated by tribal women groups; and also the produce is marketed, within or in nearby villages. Thus using local resources, local skill and local market -- makes it quite sustainable. Further locally constructed water structure and local use of its water as the key input -- has led to its success. The model highlight -- by developing small water infrastructure and effective use of its water for farming as single input has drastic effect on outcome -- i.e. farming and farming based enterprise of tribal women groups. Details of villages and intervention: Sl. No. Name of the District No. of Villages No. of irrigation structures created (Ponds/............ ....... No. of irrigation pumps No. of village enterprise No. of ................ 1. Ranchi 2. Khunti 3. East Singhbhum 4. West Singhbhum 5. Saraikela-Kharsawan 74 This "Model" has another very unique feature- where power of planning, execution and monitoring lies with villagers itself. The money was directly transferred to village body (elected by the villager), who executed the different components i.e. construction of Enterprise centre, ponds, distributory etc. This mechanism has resulted in strong ownership of all such schemes and resultant "sustainability". Conclusion: The 74 villages, where this "model" has been given a try, gives very encouraging response. The different component like water development/management, community building, community operation, marketing link etc. has been appreciated by the tribal women group, as it has resulted into many sustainable enterprises. It riplle effect has been that many other villages, around the intervention villages are demanding such intervention in their area also.

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