IWRA World Water Congress 2008 Montpellier France
3. Climate Change and Disasters
Postgraduate Student: Fathi Elosta
Brighton University, School of
Geology Department, UK
geological simulation, Jifara Plain Basin
AbstractLibya is among the countries suffering surface water supply
shortage Due to scarcity of rain and snow era, and the formation mature, the vast Libyan lands (1.700.000km) of
which 95% arid lands, in this study our focus will mainly be on Jifara blain basin with such a complicated geological
formation higher to the south and lower to the north with extreme slop towards the sea, this area was exposed to
cleave movement resulted in two fractures, the first fractures heading north-east toward Tunisia borders as for as
Jabal Abu-kirsch , 100 to 200 meters , the second fracture is heading west and called , the greater Azizia elevate ,
such movement led to fold and slop towards the sea forming three rock units :
1-Mountain front sequence
extending from homes to missiles to the west where it includes gargarish formation constituting sand lime sediments,
such sediments formed water reservoirs of great subterranean water reserves.
2-Mountain front sequence
extending east and west to Tunisian borders, this line of sequence includes Abu-Gailan and Abu-Shaiba being
covered by sand and limestone soil sedimentary containing underneath lime sediments it is around 700 meters over
sea level, this formation also contains deep and wide gulfs including Mjineen and Essirt valleys being the main feeder
to most north west area.
3-Hadba surface sequences include the 4th era formations scattered in most edges and
centre of the area with rock masses in which much low water exists. It is believed that such rock units moved back
to its present place by reason of different erosion factors, the basin is believed to be covered by lime and sand rock
that led to the birth of lime water accumulations reaching 2.4x1610cubic km. Also the occurrence of low level water
reservoirs scattered in the centre of the basin which was exposed to up and down and fracture movement
contributed to the lowering of the north part of the basin most parts of this basin have been flooded by sea water
during the Miocene and Oligocene resulted in the formation of rock Hollows consisting large quantities of water most
of which are accumulated in the sea it is also believed that there is a large water basin branching from Jifara plain, it is
also believed that the low level in the underground reservoirs is attributed to the low level of the north part of the
basin where water flows from the south part towards the lower north part to flow into the sea water forming fresh
water reservoirs inside the sea if we examine the way taken by water during the water cycle we find the movement
indicates that it originates from sea to land , then land to sea again , once again it is believed that most countries will
produce fresh water from sea in future as a result of water cycle of water returning to its original source.
era sediments are considered to have contributed to the basin surface and underground features formation during
Holocene containing water carrying sediments such as Quaser El-haj formation consisting of lime and grain rocks
where reservoirs of Al-Azizia Abushaibs and Abu-ghailan are located where water is being pumped from Miocene
layer as well as gargarish .
Formation which contains Ber El-Ghanam and kikla reservoirs that are covered by lime
sediments, water is being pumped towards south of the basin, the south area of the Jifara plain. there are also saline
sediments being spread south and west of the basin such saline’s were as result of dropping of Oligocene the matter
which led to the salinity of the soil by effect of infiltration of salts contained in the rain water by this study we expect
to find a trace of water flow from Jifara plain, towards sea, through a hollow in its north part, this matter resulted in
creation of severe water shortage in the area.
In this study, it is proposed that 3D three dimension surveys be
carries out in the basin to find out the geological structure which led to this natural phenomena resulting in
deformation to the installation of water distillation units for the purpose of refilling of such underground water
reservoirs for the increase of its pressure and water reserve and increase of pressure .