Ivan MARINKOV, student, *Tanja LONCAREVIC, B.Sc., Andelka BELIC, professor University of Novi Sad, Agricultural Faculty, Institute for Water Management, 21000 Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, Serbia and Montenegro. * Danube – Tisza – Danube Hydrosystem, 21460 Vrbas, M. Tita 14, Serbia and Montenegro
The environment protection and development are now directed towards creation of the new ecological systems capable for neutralization of the secondary products of the anthropological activities, and then again their controlled taking into the nature. Many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. Environment can be regularly regenerated and reproduced only under the conditions of the ecological production and coordination of nature and society with complete use of material in circulating technological processes. In this processes the most important are: microorganisms, biochemical processes and molecular biology genetic possessions. In order to provide suitable end qualitative food for people, wanted income for producers and acceptable and healthy environment it is necessary to make compromises and to reconcile the interests.
This paper deals with analyses of necessity and possibility use of treated municipal wastewater in the first part, and agricultural wastewater application in the second part. Water scarcity during growing season was taken into consideration in the first part. The soil and groundwater exchange caused by application wastewater from cattle farm during field experiment is shown on the second part.
Reuse of the municipal wastewater is wide spread all over the world as a result of a rapid progress in all aspects of life. The usage of municipal wastewater after its treatment is a reasonable alternative for an additional water supply, especially at the regions where there is a lack of water and where it is a limitation factor of development. Such kind of water is used, among others, for irrigation of agricultural lots and also lots for recreation. Irrigation of agricultural lots, which is applied not only for the moisture shortage compensation, but also as ecological and economical satisfaction solution, is most frequently solution for wastewater reuse.
Intensified development of cattle breeding on big industrial farms demands the development of new technologies for agricultural wastewater. The new zootehnical conditions with much greater quantity of water demand new approach to the solution of this kind of problems. Using of the refined, diluted or not diluted wastewater mostly in agriculture is one possible solution way. On the other hand, soil and groundwater contamination is one of the major environmental problems especially in the case of land disposal of agricultural wastewater. The possibilities of agricultural wastewater use, and their influence to the environment, represent an important problem that is nowadays being treated by many researchers all over the world. Among them are: Chang et al (1995), de Haan (1987), Loehr (1974), Maresca (1979), Vermesh and Kutera (1984), Westcot (1997), and others.